Monday, July 16, 2007

ALGERIA: Christians and the extremist threat.

Date: Monday 16 July 2007
Subj: Algeria: Christians and the extremist threat.
To: World Evangelical Alliance Religious Liberty News & Analysis
From: WEA RLC Principal Researcher and Writer, Elizabeth Kendal


On 13 June the Italian daily Corriere Della Sera published a column by Magdi Allam on the persecution of Christians and the lack of religious tolerance in Muslim countries. In the very last paragraph Allam names Algeria, just once, saying ". . .from Algeria to Pakistan, Indonesia to Nigeria, Saudi Arabia to Somalia", Christians are victims of persecution and discrimination. (Link 1)

Allam's assertion that Algeria is a nation where Christians are persecuted drew the ire of the Algerian government, with Liberte Algerie publishing an official response from Algeria's Religious Affairs Ministry on 8 July. MEMRI (Middle East Media Research Institute) reports: "An official response by Algeria's Religious Affairs Ministry to an article in the Italian daily Corriere, which listed Algeria among the Muslim countries in which Christians are oppressed, stated that 'Christians in Algeria enjoy greater rights and liberties than do Muslims in Christian countries'. The ministry also asserted that a new Algerian law mandating two to five years in prison for anyone found guilty of trying to convert a Muslim to another religion was in accordance with international conventions." (Link 2)

These assertions by Algeria's Religious Affairs Ministry, that "Christians in Algeria enjoy greater rights and liberties than do Muslims in Christian countries" and that Algeria's religion laws are "in accordance with international conventions" should elicit a response from religious liberty monitors.

LAW AMENDED; CHRISTIANS ARRESTED

In March 2006, a presidential order that established new conditions for the exercise of non-Muslim religious practice was passed in both the Algerian Ummah council (Senate) and in the Algerian National Assembly (Parliament). The law is essentially an anti-missionary, anti-proselytising law that prescribed prison terms and hefty fines for anyone who "incites, constrains or uses seductive means seeking to convert a Muslim to another religion (. . .), or
who produces, stores or distributes printed documents or audio-visual formats or any other format or means which seeks to shake the faith of a Muslim". (For background see link 3).

On 4 June 2007 the government announced amendments to the religion law. Pursuant to Executive Decree 07/158 of 27 May 2007 all non-Muslim religious activities now fall under the auspices of the newly established National Commission for Non-Muslim Faiths which is chaired by the Minister for Religious Affairs and Wakfs or its representative (a wakf/waqf is a Muslim
trust). The commission is composed of representatives from the Ministry for National Defence, the Interior and local communities, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Directorate-General of National Security, the Command of the National Police, the national advisory commission of the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights.

From now on non-Muslim religious activity may not take place except in recognised and approved associations and structures unless there is prior written permission from the civil authorities. This does not affect Sunday worship in recognised and approved churches but it does acutely restrict spontaneous worship, home fellowships, open air meetings and public ministry.
(Link 4)

According to an article by B Mokhtaria in Le Quotidien D'Oran the new commission now has authority over non-Muslim business and worship. It also has the right to contribute a preliminary opinion regarding the registration of religious associations and the approval of sites for worship. (Link 5)

The spokesman for and advisor to the Ministry for Religious Affairs, Mr Tamine, told Oran that the new laws were promulgated simply to fill in an existing gap in the law as the authorities have become aware of the origins of "extremists" in recent years. He said that the new laws will enable the authorities to crack down on foreign missionaries who enter Algeria on tourist
visas to seduce Algerians and convert them to Christianity by fraud and allurement. According to Mr Tamine, these missionaries act under the cover of religion while in reality, he alleges, their agenda is not religious at all. He maintains that Algeria must resist the activities of these non-Muslim "extremists". He asserts that the new law is not repressive, but protective, and will even protect the Christian expatriate working community from the consequences of religious demonstrations and reactions against Christian "extremism".

CHRISTIANS CHARGED WITH POSSESSION

On 20 June, five Algerian Christians faced court on charges of possession of Christian literature. (Link 6)

One believer appeared before the court for a second time on 27 June and will reappear in court on 19 December. He had been approached by two men pretending to be interested in the gospel on account of a satellite programme they had seen on El Hayat. The men asked the Christian if he could give them a Bible. When he did, the enquirers revealed themselves as police, arrested the believer and confiscated the box of Bibles he had in his possession. Two other believers were reportedly tricked into giving a Bible to a police officer at a road block. They will face court in September. According to sources the Algerian media did not cover the June trials.

Many believe that the Algerian authorities are overwhelmed and confused by the growing phenomenon of Muslims converting to Christianity.

Whilst this is doubtless true, it is also reasonable to question if the government's increasingly repressive policies regarding Christianity are in some measure being driven by a desire to appease increasingly threatening Islamic forces.

THE REAL EXTREMIST THREAT

Algerians know that the real threat to Algerian security and stability, progress and prosperity is Islamic "extremism" and fundamentalist militancy.

In late 2006 the Algerian Salafite Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda. On 24 January 2007, with the blessing of Osama bin Laden, the group changed its name to The Al-Qaeda Organization in the Islamic Maghreb. On 11 April, around 30 people were killed and 22 wounded when this group detonated two bombs in Algiers, one at a police station and one which ripped the facade off the President's headquarters. (Link 7)

On Wednesday 11 July a 20-year-old jihadist from an al-Qaeda cell bombed an army barracks in Lakhdaria village, 120 km (75 miles) east of Algiers. This suicide truck bombing killed 10 soldiers and wounded 35. (Link 8)

A MEMRI article issued after the 11 April bombings in Algiers entitled "Reactions in the Algerian and Arab Press to the Al-Qaeda Attacks in Algiers" shows that Algerians are under no illusions about the real extremist threat.

MEMRI reports: "Hakim Outoudert, writing in the regional daily La Depeche de Kabylie, questioned the Interior Minister's assertion that the attacks were an isolated event, and called for an ideological battle against fundamentalism in order to dry up the 'terrorist matrix'.

". . . 'Where did these young people contract this evil, if not from within Algerian society, through a bigoted media literature, but above all within the mosques in subversive suburbs? . . . [Should we] do away with fundamentalism, the matrix of terrorism, by drying up [its] ideological ground, or maintain [its] destructive potential by ceding it the terrain of political initiative? One day we'll have to choose. The sooner the better.'" (Link 9)

Elizabeth Kendal
rl-research@crossnet.org.au

Links

1) Una manifestazione per i cristiani in Oriente perseguitati
Magdi Allam, 13 Giugno 2007
http://www.corriere.it/Primo_Piano/Esteri/2007/06_Giugno/13/magdi.shtml

2) Algerian Religious Affairs Ministry Denies Persecution of Christians In Country. MEMRI. Source: Liberte, Algerie, July 8, 2007
http://www.thememriblog.org/blog_personal/en/2084.htm

3) Algeria: severe new penalties for 'proselytising'
World Evangelical Alliance Religious Liberty News & Analysis
By Elizabeth Kendal. Friday 24 March 2006
http://www.worldevangelical.org/news/view.htm?id=408
ALSO, Algeria: Text of Presidential Order Concerning Religion.
http://ea.org.au/default.aspx?id=0b0bd037-22c5-442e-9f2d-6bd6120e1c5e
The Presidential Order was published in the Official Journal of the Algerian
Republic (Journal Officiel de la Republique Algerienne) Number 12, 1 March
2006. The direct link to that journal is:
http://www.joradp.dz/JO2000/2006/012/F_Pag.htm . The Presidential Order
concerning religion is on pages 23 & 24. (French)

4) Restriction de la liberte religieuse pour les Christiens. 18 Juin 2007
http://evangelique-kabyle.blog.mongenie.com/index/p/2007/06/388071
AND – with a clarification submitted from 'Liberte Algerie'
Les messes chr├ętiennes n'ont pas besoin d'autorisation des walis
Par Samar, Mercredi 27 Juin 2007, Liberte Algerie
http://www.blogdei.com/index.php/2007/07/06/2261-pratique-des-cultes-non-musulmans-en-algerie-les-reunions-chretiennes-n-auraient-pas-besoin-de-l-autorisation-des-walis

5) Une commission pour reguler la pratique des cultes non musulmans.
par B.Mokhtaria, 7 Juin 2007
http://www.lequotidien-oran.com/index.php?news=501222&archive_date=2007-06-07

6) Cinq Chretiens Algeriens devant la justice le 20 Juin.
22 Juin 2007
http://evangelique-kabyle.blog.mongenie.com/index.php?idblogp=391554

7) Al Qaeda claims responsibility for Algiers bombings
ABC, 12 April 2007
http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2007/04/12/1894940.htm

8) Suicide Attack In Algeria Kills Ten, Wounds 35 Soldiers
12 July 2007. By Joseph S. Mayton - AHN Middle East Correspondent
http://www.allheadlinenews.com/articles/7007888238

9) Reactions in the Algerian and Arab Press to the Al-Qaeda Attacks in Algiers
MEMRI, 17 April 2007, Special Dispatch Series - No. 1546
http://www.memri.org/bin/opener_latest.cgi?ID=SD154607

Thursday, July 5, 2007

Egypt: Let the apostasy/liberty debate begin.

Date: Thursday 5 July 2007
Subj: Egypt: Let the apostasy/liberty debate begin.
To: World Evangelical Alliance Religious Liberty News & Analysis
From: WEA RLC Principal Researcher and Writer, Elizabeth Kendal


In April 2007 a lower court ruled against 45 Copts who had converted to Islam or been deemed Muslim on account of the conversion of a parent, but who wanted to officially return to Christianity. The lower court ruled that Muslims, even if they are converts from Christianity, could not be permitted to apostasise (leave Islam). The Copts decided to appeal. (For background see link 1.)

On 1 July 07, despite the government's efforts to get the case dismissed, Judge Essam Abdel Aziz of Egypt's Supreme Administrative Court ruled in favour of the Copts and agreed to consider the merits of their case. The appeal was successful and a retrial has been slated for 1 September 2007.

According to Middle East On-line, human rights groups welcomed the decision. "The decision by the Supreme Administrative Court to consider the case of Egyptian converts to Islam wanting to return to their Church is very positive," said Ramsis al-Naggar, the Coptic lawyer who represented 12 of the plaintiffs. "It proves there is still a window of freedom in Egypt." (Link 2)

"It is a step in the right direction," Hossam Bahgat, director of the Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights said. "We are hopeful and optimistic that the Supreme Administrative Court will eventually uphold the principles of religious freedom and non-discrimination, both of which are guaranteed under the Constitution and international law." (Link 3)

Associated Press reports, "Court officials said government lawyers objected to Judge Essam Eddin Abdel-Aziz's decision to accept the appeal, arguing the initial verdict issued in April was in line with the principles of Islamic Sharia law." (Link 3)

So let the apostasy/liberty debate begin.

Elizabeth Kendal

Links

1) Egypt: Egypt to rule on apostasy - 1 July 2007
WEA RLC News & Analysis, 29 Jun 2007
By: WEA RLC Principal Researcher and Writer, Elizabeth Kendal

2) Egypt agrees to hear case of Christian converts. 2 July 2007
http://www.middle-east-online.com/english/?id=21283

3) Egyptian court accepts appeal from 45 Copts trying to reclaim their religion. 2 July 2007
http://english.pravda.ru/news/world/02-07-2007/94407-Egypt_Copts-0